Involve the parents/siblings

  • Interventions are needed that address not only the child but the family as a whole – Schuntermann, P. (2007).
  • Family stress can be an attributing factor for an unfavorable prognosis – Siefer et al, 2002).
  • Social support is a protective factor for the adaption of parents of children with autism -Lounds, J. (2004)
  • Eighty percent of siblings have little to no involvement in childhood activities – (Barak-Levey et al, 2010).
  • The sibling relationship is damaged when siblings of children with developmental delays experience anger and frustration due to lack of involvement in childhood activities – (Kaminskyet al, 2002).
  • Non-conflicting sibling relationship is a protective factor for later maladjustment in the siblings of children with developmental disabilities – Fisman et al, 1996).
  • Numerous benefits in child and parent outcomes have been associated with the degree of parental involvement in the treatment of the ASD (Burrell & Borrego, 2012).


  • Barak-Levey, Y., Goldstein, E., & Weinstock, M. (2010). Adjustment characteristics of healthy siblings of children with autism. Journal of Family Studies, 16, 155–164.
  • Burrell  TL;  Borrego  J  Jr:  Parents’ involvement in ASD treatment: what is their role? Cogn Behav Pract   2012; 19:423–432.
  • Fisman, S., Wolf, L., Ellison.
  • Kaminsky, L., & Dewey D. (2002). Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 225-232.
  • Lounds, J. (2004). Family Stress and Coping. In T.L. Whitman (Ed), The development of autism: A self-regulatory perspective (pp. 233-278). Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London
  • Robbins, F.R., Dunlap, G., & Plienis, AJ (1991) Family characteristics, family training, and the progress of young children with autism. Journal of Early Intervention, 15, 173-184.
  • Schuntermann, P. (2007). The Sibling Experience: Growing Up with a Child Who Has Pervasive Developmental Disorder or Mental Retardation. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 15 (3), 93-108.
  • Siefer, R., Sameroff, A.J., Baldwin, C.P., & Baldwin, A.L. (1992) Child and family factors that ameliorate risk between 4 and 13 years of age. Journal of American Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 893-903.


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